Free LSAT Practice Questions
Check out our free LSAT Practice questions to help you prepare for the big day.
LOGICAL REASONING DIRECTIONS: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
Historian: The Land Party achieved its only national victory in Banestria in 1935. It received most of its support that year in rural and semirural areas, where the bulk of Banestria’s population lived at the time. The economic woes of the years surrounding that election hit agricultural and small business interests the hardest, and the Land Party specifically targeted those groups in 1935. I conclude that the success of the Land Party that year was due to the combination of the Land Party’s specifically addressing the concerns of these groups and the depth of the economic problems people in these groups were facing.
Each of the following, if true, strengthens the historian’s argument EXCEPT:
- In preceding elections the Land Party made no attempt to address the interests of economically distressed urban groups.
- Voters are more likely to vote for a political party that focuses on their problems.
- The Land Party had most of its successes when there was economic distress in the agricultural sector.
- No other major party in Banestria specifically addressed the issues of people who lived in semirural areas in 1935.
- The greater the degree of economic distress someone is in, the more likely that person is to vote.
Gamba: Muñoz claims that the Southwest Hopeville Neighbors Association overwhelmingly opposes the new water system, citing this as evidence of citywide opposition. The association did pass a resolution opposing the new water system, but only 25 of 350 members voted, with 10 in favor of the system. Furthermore, the 15 opposing votes represent far less than 1 percent of Hopeville’s population. One should not assume that so few votes represent the view of the majority of Hopeville’s residents.
Of the following, which one most accurately describes Gamba’s strategy of argumentation?
- questioning a conclusion based on the results of a vote, on the grounds that people with certain views are more likely to vote
- questioning a claim supported by statistical data by arguing that statistical data can be manipulated to support whatever view the interpreter wants to support
- attempting to refute an argument by showing that, contrary to what has been claimed, the truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion
- criticizing a view on the grounds that the view is based on evidence that is in principle impossible to disconfirm
- attempting to cast doubt on a conclusion by claiming that the statistical sample on which the conclusion is based is too small to be dependable
Driver: My friends say I will one day have an accident because I drive my sports car recklessly. But I have done some research, and apparently minivans and larger sedans have very low accident rates compared to sports cars. So trading my sports car in for a minivan would lower my risk of having an accident.
The reasoning in the driver’s argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that this argument
- infers a cause from a mere correlation
- relies on a sample that is too narrow
- misinterprets evidence that a result is likely as evidence that the result is certain
- mistakes a condition sufficient for bringing about a result for a condition necessary for doing so
- relies on a source that is probably not well-informed
Editorialist: News media rarely cover local politics thoroughly, and local political business is usually conducted secretively. These factors each tend to isolate local politicians from their electorates. This has the effect of reducing the chance that any particular act of resident participation will elicit a positive official response, which in turn discourages resident participation in local politics.
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the editorialist’s statements?
- Particular acts of resident participation would be likely to elicit a positive response from local politicians if those politicians were less isolated from their electorate.
- Local political business should be conducted less secretively because this would avoid discouraging resident participation in local politics.
- The most important factor influencing a resident’s decision as to whether to participate in local politics is the chance that the participation will elicit a positive official response.
- More-frequent thorough coverage of local politics would reduce at least one source of discouragement from resident participation in local politics.
- If resident participation in local politics were not discouraged, this would cause local politicians to be less isolated from their electorate.
Philosopher: An action is morally right if it would be reasonably expected to increase the aggregate well-being of the people affected by it. An action is morally wrong if and only if it would be reasonably expected to reduce the aggregate well-being of the people affected by it. Thus, actions that would be reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them are also right.
The philosopher’s conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
- Only wrong actions would be reasonably expected to reduce the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them.
- No action is both right and wrong.
- Any action that is not morally wrong is morally right.
- There are actions that would be reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them.
- Only right actions have good consequences.
Car companies solicit consumer information on such human factors as whether a seat is comfortable or whether a set of controls is easy to use. However, designer interaction with consumers is superior to survey data; the data may tell the designer why a feature on last year’s model was given a low rating, but data will not explain how that feature needs to be changed in order to receive a higher rating.
The reasoning above conforms most closely to which one of the following propositions?
- Getting consumer input for design modifications can contribute to successful product design.
- Car companies traditionally conduct extensive postmarket surveys.
- Designers aim to create features that will appeal to specific market niches.
- A car will have unappealing features if consumers are not consulted during its design stage.
- Consumer input affects external rather than internal design components of cars.
During the nineteenth century, the French academy of art was a major financial sponsor of painting and sculpture in France; sponsorship by private individuals had decreased dramatically by this time. Because the academy discouraged innovation in the arts, there was little innovation in nineteenth century French sculpture. Yet nineteenth century French painting showed a remarkable degree of innovation.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the difference between the amount of innovation in French painting and the amount of innovation in French sculpture during the nineteenth century?
- In France in the nineteenth century, the French academy gave more of its financial support to painting than it did to sculpture.
- The French academy in the nineteenth century financially supported a greater number of sculptors than painters, but individual painters received more support, on average, than individual sculptors.
- Because stone was so much more expensive than paint and canvas, far more unsponsored paintings were produced than were unsponsored sculptures in France during the nineteenth century.
- Very few of the artists in France in the nineteenth century who produced sculptures also produced paintings.
- Although the academy was the primary sponsor of sculpture and painting, the total amount of financial support that French sculptors and painters received from sponsors declined during the nineteenth century.
ANSWERS = 1,5,1,4,3,1,3
ANALYTICAL REASONING DIRECTIONS: Each group of questions in this section is based on a set of conditions. In answering some of the questions, it may be useful to draw a rough diagram. Choose the response that most accurately and completely answers each question and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
There are exactly three recycling centers in Rivertown: Center 1, Center 2, and Center 3. Exactly five kinds of material are recycled at these recycling centers: glass, newsprint, plastic, tin, and wood. Each recycling center recycles at least two but no more than three of these kinds of material. The following conditions must hold:
- Any recycling center that recycles wood also recycles newsprint.
- Every kind of material that Center 2 recycles is also recycled at Center 1.
- Only one of the recycling centers recycles plastic, and that recycling center does not recycle glass.
Which one of the following could be an accurate account of all the kinds of material recycled at each recycling center in Rivertown?
- Center 1: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 2: newsprint, wood; Center 3: glass, tin, wood
- Center 1: glass, newsprint, tin; Center 2: glass, newsprint, tin; Center 3: newsprint, plastic, wood
- Center 1: glass, newsprint, wood; Center 2: glass, newsprint, tin; Center 3: plastic, tin
- Center 1: glass, plastic, tin; Center 2: glass, tin; Center 3: newsprint, wood
- Center 1: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 2: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 3: glass, newsprint, tin
Which one of the following is a complete and accurate list of the recycling centers in Rivertown any one of which could recycle plastic?
- Center 1 only
- Center 3 only
- Center 1, Center 2
- Center 1, Center 3
- Center 1, Center 2, Center 3
If Center 2 recycles three kinds of material, then which one of the following kinds of material must Center 3 recycle?
If each recycling center in Rivertown recycles exactly three kinds of material, then which one of the following could be true?
- Only Center 2 recycles glass.
- Only Center 3 recycles newsprint.
- Only Center 1 recycles plastic.
- Only Center 3 recycles tin.
- Only Center 1 recycles wood.
If Center 3 recycles glass, then which one of the following kinds of material must Center 2 recycle?
If Center 1 is the only recycling center that recycles wood, then which one of the following could be a complete and accurate list of the kinds of material that one of the recycling centers recycles?
- plastic, tin
- newsprint, wood
- newsprint, tin
- glass, wood
- glass, tin
ANSWERS = 2,4,3,4,2,1
READING COMPREHENSION DIRECTIONS: Each set of questions in this section is based on a single passage or a pair of passages. The questions are to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage or pair of passages. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question, and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
The World Wide Web, a network of electronically produced and interconnected (or “linked”) sites, called pages, that are accessible via personal computer, raises legal issues about the rights of owners of intellectual property, notably those who create documents for inclusion on Web pages. Some of these owners of intellectual property claim that unless copyright law is strengthened, intellectual property on the Web will not be protected from copyright infringement. Web users, however, claim that if their ability to access information on Web pages is reduced, the Web cannot live up to its potential as an open, interactive medium of communication.
The debate arises from the Web’s ability to link one document to another. Links between sites are analogous to the inclusion in a printed text of references to other works, but with one difference: the cited document is instantly retrievable by a user who activates the link. This immediate accessibility creates a problem, since current copyright laws give owners of intellectual property the right to sue a distributor of unauthorized copies of their material even if that distributor did not personally make the copies. If person A, the author of a document, puts the document on a Web page, and person B, the creator of another Web page, creates a link to A’s document, is B committing copyright infringement?
To answer this question, it must first be determined who controls distribution of a document on the Web. When A places a document on a Web page, this is comparable to recording an outgoing message on one’s telephone answering machine for others to hear. When B creates a link to A’s document, this is akin to B’s giving out A’s telephone number, thereby allowing third parties to hear the outgoing message for themselves. Anyone who calls can listen to the message; that is its purpose. While B’s link may indeed facilitate access to A’s document, the crucial point is that A, simply by placing that document on the Web, is thereby offering it for distribution. Therefore, even if B leads others to the document, it is A who actually controls access to it. Hence creating a link to a document is not the same as making or distributing a copy of that document. Moreover, techniques are already available by which A can restrict access to a document. For example, A may require a password to gain entry to A’s Web page, just as a telephone owner can request an unlisted number and disclose it only to selected parties. Such a solution would compromise the openness of the Web somewhat, but not as much as the threat of copyright infringement litigation. Changing copyright law to benefit owners of intellectual property is thus ill-advised because it would impede the development of the Web as a public forum dedicated to the free exchange of ideas.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?
- Since distribution of a document placed on a Web page is controlled by the author of that page rather than by the person who creates a link to the page, creating such a link should not be considered copyright infringement.
- Changes in copyright law in response to the development of Web pages and links are ill-advised unless such changes amplify rather than restrict the free exchange of ideas necessary in a democracy.
- People who are concerned about the access others may have to the Web documents they create can easily prevent such access without inhibiting the rights of others to exchange ideas freely.
- Problems concerning intellectual property rights created by new forms of electronic media are not insuperably difficult to resolve if one applies basic commonsense principles to these problems.
- Maintaining a free exchange of ideas on the Web offers benefits that far outweigh those that might be gained by a small number of individuals if a radical alteration of copyright laws aimed at restricting the Web’s growth were allowed.
Which one of the following is closest in meaning to the term “strengthened” as that term is used in the second sentence of the passage?
- made more restrictive
- made uniform worldwide
- made to impose harsher penalties
- dutifully enforced
- more fully recognized as legitimate
With which one of the following claims about documents placed on Web pages would the author be most likely to agree?
- Such documents cannot receive adequate protection unless current copyright laws are strengthened.
- Such documents cannot be protected from unauthorized distribution without significantly diminishing the potential of the Web to be a widely used form of communication.
- The nearly instantaneous access afforded by the Web makes it impossible in practice to limit access to such documents.
- Such documents can be protected from copyright infringement with the least damage to the public interest only by altering existing legal codes.
- Such documents cannot fully contribute to the Web’s free exchange of ideas unless their authors allow them to be freely accessed by those who wish to do so.
Based on the passage, the relationship between strengthening current copyright laws and relying on passwords to restrict access to a Web document is most analogous to the relationship between
- allowing everyone use of a public facility and restricting its use to members of the community
- outlawing the use of a drug and outlawing its sale
- prohibiting a sport and relying on participants to employ proper safety gear
- passing a new law and enforcing that law
- allowing unrestricted entry to a building and restricting entry to those who have been issued a badge
The passage most strongly implies which one of the following?
- There are no creators of links to Web pages who are also owners of intellectual property on Web pages.
- The person who controls access to a Web page document should be considered the distributor of that document.
- Rights of privacy should not be extended to owners of intellectual property placed on the Web.
- Those who create links to Web pages have primary control over who reads the documents on those pages.
- A document on a Web page must be converted to a physical document via printing before copyright infringement takes place.
According to the passage, which one of the following features of outgoing messages left on telephone answering machines is most relevant to the debate concerning copyright infringement?
- Such messages are carried by an electronic medium of communication.
- Such messages are not legally protected against unauthorized distribution.
- Transmission of such messages is virtually instantaneous.
- People do not usually care whether or not others might record such messages.
- Such messages have purposely been made available to anyone who calls that telephone number.
The author’s discussion of telephone answering machines serves primarily to
- compare and contrast the legal problems created by two different sorts of electronic media
- provide an analogy to illustrate the positions taken by each of the two sides in the copyright debate
- show that the legal problems produced by new communication technology are not themselves new
- illustrate the basic principle the author believes should help determine the outcome of the copyright debate
- show that telephone use also raises concerns about copyright infringement
According to the passage, present copyright laws
- allow completely unrestricted use of any document placed by its author on a Web page
- allow those who establish links to a document on a Web page to control its distribution to others
- prohibit anyone but the author of a document from making a profit from the document’s distribution
- allow the author of a document to sue anyone who distributes the document without permission
- should be altered to allow more complete freedom in the exchange of ideas
ANSWERS = 1,1,5,3,2,5,4,4