Free GMAT Practice Questions
Check out our free GMAT Practice questions to help you prepare for the big day.
READING COMPREHENSION DIRECTIONS: Questions 1—6 are based on the following passage. Read the passage carefully and then choose the best answer to each question. Answer the questions based upon what is stated or implied in the reading passage.
In Ursula LeGuin’s short story “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas,” everyone in the city of Omelas is happy—everyone, that is, except the child who is kept locked in a basement closet. The child is left entirely alone and neglected except for occasional visits from the citizens of Omelas. They come at a certain age as a rite of initiation, to learn the secret of the happiness they enjoy. They come to learn that their happiness has a price: the suffering of an innocent child. In the end, most people stay in Omelas; but a few, unable to bear the fact that they are responsible for the suffering of that child, reject this utopia built upon a utilitarian morality.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory based upon the belief that happiness is the ultimate good and that people should use happiness as the measure for determining right and wrong. For utilitarians, the right thing to do is that which will bring about the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Furthermore, utilitarianism argues that the intention of people’s actions does not matter; only the consequences of their actions are morally relevant, because only the consequences determine how much happiness is produced.
Although many useful social policies and much legislation are founded on this “greatest good” philosophy, utilitarianism can be problematic as a basis for morality. First, happiness is not so easy to quantify, and any measurement is bound to be subjective. Second, in a theory that treats everything except happiness as instrumentally rather than intrinsically valuable, anything—or, more importantly, anyone—can (and should) be treated as a means to an end, if it means greater happiness. This rejects the notion that human beings have their own intrinsic value. Further, utilitarianism puts the burden of the happiness of the masses on the suffering of the few. Is the happiness of many worth the suffering of a few? Why do those few deserve to suffer? Isn’t this burden of suffering morally irresponsible? This is the dilemma so brilliantly illustrated in LeGuin’s story.
Which of the following best sums up the author’s opinion of utilitarianism?
- It is an ethical theory.
- It is the ethical theory that people should all live by.
- It is a useful but problematic ethical theory.
- It does not adequately measure happiness.
- It underestimates the intrinsic value of human beings.
According to the passage, in utilitarianism:
- Only intentions have moral significance.
- Consequences are important, but intentions are more important.
- Intentions and consequences are equally important.
- Intentions are important, but consequences are more important.
- Only consequences have moral significance.
The author summarizes LeGuin’s story primarily to:
- Show how good the story is.
- Get readers interested in the story.
- Illustrate the power of words.
- Illustrate the central problem with utilitarianism.
- Illustrate a utilitarian utopia.
From the passage, it can be inferred that the author:
- May use utilitarianism occasionally but not as a guiding moral principle.
- Would never use utilitarianism to make a decision about what is right or wrong.
- Uses utilitarianism regularly to make moral decisions.
- Believes utilitarianism is a good basis for social policy.
- Thinks most people do not really understand utilitarianism.
From the author’s summary of LeGuin’s story, the reader can infer that
- Most people in Omelas are utilitarians.
- Most people in Omelas reject utilitarianism.
- Everyone in Omelas is happy.
- The child willingly sacrifices himself for others.
- LeGuin is a popular science-fiction writer.
Utilitarianism could best be expressed in which of the following formulas?
X = Action
Y = Consequences that create happiness
Z = Consequences that create unhappiness
- Do X if Y = Z.
- Do X if Y < OR = Z
- Do X if Y > OR = Z
- Do X if Y > Z
- Do X if Y < Z
ANSWERS = TBD
CRITICAL REASONING DIRECTIONS: For each question, select the best answer from the choices given.
Unemployment in Winston County has risen only 4% since I took office. Under my predecessor, unemployment rose 14%. Clearly, my economic policies are far more effective. Which of the following must be true in order for this argument to be valid?
- Winston County’s population dropped significantly during the current administration.
- The national unemployment rate increased by 12% during the previous administration but only 2% during the current administration.
- Key socioeconomic variables such as the state of the national economy and the demographics of Winston County are comparable for each administration.
- Key policy changes, such as increased job training for the unemployed, were implemented under the current administration.
- Tax incentives have been implemented to bring new businesses to Winston County.
Morning Glory, the coffee shop on the corner, has lost nearly 50% of its business because a national retail coffee chain opened up a store down the street. Instead of closing up shop, the owner of Morning Glory plans to draw in customers by offering coffee, tea, and pastries at much lower prices than the national coffee chain. The owner’s plan of action is based on all of the following assumptions EXCEPT
- Some customers will choose the coffee shop that offers the lowest price.
- The quality of Morning Glory’s coffee is comparable to that of the national coffee chain.
- Morning Glory can afford to cut its profit margin in order to lower prices.
- Morning Glory’s customers are very loyal.
- The national coffee chain will not lower its prices in order to compete with Morning Glory.
When romance novels were located in the back of the bookstore, they accounted for approximately 6% of total sales. Since we moved romance novels close to the front of the store and put several books on display, sales of romance novels have increased to 14% to 18% of total sales. All of the following conclusions can logically be drawn from this argument EXCEPT
- Customers who bought one romance novel are likely to come back for another.
- Customers are more likely to buy books located near the front of the bookstore than at the back.
- The display caught the interest of people who might not have otherwise purchased a romance novel.
- Customers believe that bookstores put their best books near the front of the store.
- Sales of romance novels may increase even more if the section were moved all the way to the front.
With more and more classes being offered online, more and more students will earn their degrees in virtual universities. Students in California will graduate from schools in New York without ever leaving their state. Because online courses offer flexibility without geographic boundaries, virtual degrees will be in greater demand, and colleges and universities should invest the bulk of their resources in developing online degree programs. All of the following, if true, are valid objections to this argument EXCEPT
- Online courses are more time consuming for faculty to develop than regular courses.
- Many students need the ability to attend class outside of regular classroom hours.
- Some students prefer the traditional classroom to the virtual classroom.
- Not every course is suitable for an online environment.
- There is no way to ensure the authenticity of a student’s work in an online environment
Property values in South Orange, New Jersey, have nearly doubled in the last six years. South Orange is located in Essex County, 17 miles from New York City. Which of the following, if true, best explains the results described in the statement?
- The proximity of South Orange to New York City
- The completion of a direct rail line to New York City
- The addition of 240 housing units in South Orange
- Improved schools and a renovated downtown in South Orange
- The relocation of a major technical corporation to Union, New Jersey, two miles from South Orange
One out of four heart surgery patients at St. Vincent’s dies from complications during surgery. Only one out of six heart surgery patients at St. Mary’s dies from complications during surgery. If you need heart surgery, make sure you go to St. Mary’s, not St. Vincent’s. Which of the following, if true, is the best reason to reject this argument?
- St. Vincent’s specializes in heart surgery for elderly and high-risk patients.
- St. Mary’s surgical equipment is more up to date than St. Vincent’s.
- St. Vincent’s has the most renowned heart surgeon in the country on its staff.
- St. Vincent’s offers flexible payment options for balances not covered by insurance.
- Two doctors who used to work at St. Mary’s now work at St. Vincent’s.
DNA evidence has increasingly been used in court to prove guilt and to exonerate the innocent. Because so many convicted felons have been cleared by DNA evidence, all cases in which someone was convicted largely on circumstantial evidence should be called into question and reviewed. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen this argument?
- One in three convictions today rests largely on DNA evidence.
- DNA evidence is admissible even after the statute of limitations has expired.
- Of every ten cases in which DNA evidence becomes available post-conviction, five convictions are overturned.
- DNA evidence is 99.8% accurate.
- DNA evidence is very difficult to falsify or tamper with
ANSWERS = TBD
SENTENCE CORRECTION DIRECTIONS: The following questions each present a sentence, part or all of which is underlined. Beneath the sentence you will find five ways of phrasing the underlined portion. The first choice repeats the original; the other four choices present different options for phrasing the underlined text. Determine which choice best expresses the idea in the underlined text. If you think the original is best, choose option a. These questions test both the correctness and overall effectiveness of expression. In choosing your answer, pay attention to grammar, sentence construction, and word choice and style. The correct answer is free of grammatical errors, clear, precise, and concise.
Despite growing evidence of global warming; 34 different states plan to develop nearly 100 new coal burning electric plants in the next decade.
- warming; 34 different states
- warming. Thirty-four different states
- warming: 34 different states
- warming, 34 different states
- warming, for 34 different states
Suggested by new research is the fact that people who achieve phenomenal success do so, not only by visualizing their success in future endeavors, but also, by recalling their past successes, creating a tremendous surge in confidence.
- Suggested by new research is the fact that people who achieve phenomenal success do so, not only by visualizing their success in future endeavors, but also, by recalling their past successes, creating a tremendous surge in confidence.
- New research suggests that people that achieve phenomenal success visualize their success in future endeavors and also recall their past successes to create a tremendous surge in confidence.
- New research suggests that the achievement of phenomenal success by persons is accomplished not only by the visualization of success in future endeavors but also by the recollection of past successes, which creates a tremendous surge in confidence.
- New research suggests that people who achieve phenomenal success do so not only by visualizing their success in future endeavors but also by recalling their past successes, creating a tremendous surge in confidence.
- New research suggests that people who achieve phenomenal success do so not only by visualizing their success in future end
Creating a fundamental shift in American foreign policy and establishing a “policy of containment” that framed our foreign policy as a battle between the forces of good (America and other democratic societies) and evil (the Soviet Union and other communist nations), was the 1947 Truman Doctrine.
- Creating a fundamental shift in American foreign policy and establishing a “policy of containment” that framed our foreign policy as a battle between the forces of good (America and other democratic societies) and evil (the Soviet Union and other communist nations), was the 1947 Truman Doctrine.
- The 1947 Truman Doctrine created a fundamental shift in American foreign policy, establishing a “policy of containment” that framed our foreign policy as a battle between the forces of good (America and other democratic societies) and evil (the Soviet Union and other communist nations).
- Creating a fundamental shift in American foreign policy was the Truman Doctrine, which was put forth in 1947, and which established a “policy of containment” that framed our foreign policy as a battle between the forces of good (America, along with other democratic societies) and the forces of evil (the Soviet Union, along with other communist nations).
- The 1947 Truman Doctrine created a fundamental shift in American foreign policy, establishing a “policy of containment” that framed our foreign policy as a battle between American and other democratic societies, which it considered the forces of good, and the Soviet Union and other communist nations, which it considered the forces of evil.
- A fundamental shift in American foreign policy was created in 1947 by the Truman Doctrine, which importantly established a “policy of containment,” a policy that framed our foreign policy in terms of a battle between good and evil, with the good forces being America and other democracies and the evil forces being the Soviet Union and other communist nations.
The first science-fiction novel, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, actually contains very little science, but it masterfully explores the social and moral repercussions of what might happen if certain scientific advances were possible.
- but it masterfully explores the social and moral repercussions of what might happen
- but it explores in a masterful way the social and moral repercussions of what might happen
- but, exploring the social and moral repercussions, it masterfully considers what might happen
- but it masterfully explores repercussions, social and moral in nature, of what might happen
- but it masterfully explores what are the social and moral repercussions
ANSWERS = 3,5,4,1,1,4,3,4,1,2,2,1,3,4,4,2,1
PROBLEM SOLVING DIRECTIONS: Solve the problem and choose the letter indicating the best answer choice. The numbers used in this section are real numbers. The figures used are drawn to scale and lie in a plane unless otherwise noted.
If both the length and the width of a rectangle are tripled, then the area of the rectangle is
- two times larger
- three times larger
- five times larger
- six times larger
- nine times larger
Given integers as the measurements of the sides of a triangle, what is the maximum perimeter of a triangle where two of the sides measure 10 and 14?
In 40 minutes, Diane walks 2.5 miles and Sue walks 1.5 miles. In miles per hour, how much faster is Diane walking?
If five less than y is six more than x + 1, then by how much is x less than y?
At a certain high school, 638 students are taking biology this year. Last year 580 students took biology. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
- There was a 10% increase in students taking biology.
- There were 90% more students taking biology last year.
- There were 10% fewer students taking biology last year.
- The number of students taking biology this year is 110% of the number from last year.
- The number of students taking biology last year was about 91% of the students taking biology this year.
Two positive integers differ by 7. The sum of their squares is 169. Find the larger integer.
Quadrilateral WXYZ has diagonals that bisect each other. Which of the following could describe this quadrilateral?
III. isosceles trapezoid
- I only
- I and II only
- I and III only
- II and III only
- I, II, and III
ANSWERS = 5,4,2,5,2,4,2
DATA SUFFICIENCY DIRECTIONS: Each of the following problems contains a question that is followed by two statements. Select your answer using the data in statement (1) and statement (2) and determine whether they provide enough information to answer the initial question. If you are asked for the value of a quantity, the information is sufficient when it is possible to determine only one value for the quantity. The five possible answer choices are as follows:
- Statement (1), BY ITSELF, will suffice to solve the problem, but NOT statement (2) by itself.
- Statement (2), BY ITSELF, will suffice to solve the problem, but NOT statement (1) by itself.
- The problem can be solved using statement (1) and statement (2) TOGETHER, but not ONLY statement (1) or statement (2).
- The problem can be solved using EITHER statement (1) only or statement (2) only.
- The problem CANNOT be solved using statement (1) and statement (2) TOGETHER.
The numbers used are real numbers. If a figure accompanies a question, the figure will be drawn to scale according to the original question or information, but it will not necessarily be consistent with the information given in statements (1) and (2).
Is k even?
(1) k + 1 is odd.
(2) k + 2 is even
Is quadrilateral ABCD a rectangle?
(1) m ∠ ABC 90°
(2) AB CD
Sam has a total of 33 nickels and dimes in his pocket. How many dimes does he have?
(1) There are more than 30 nickels.
(2) He has a total of $1.75 in his pocket
If x is a nonzero integer, is x positive?
(1) x 2 is positive.
(2) x 3 is positive.
The area of a triangle is 36 square units. What is the height?
(1) The area of a similar triangle is 48 square units.
(2) The base of the triangle is half the height.
What is the value of x?
(1) x 2 6x 9
(2) 2y x 10
What is the slope of line m?
(1) It is parallel to the line 2y 3 + x.
(2) The line intersects the y-axis at the point (0, 5).
If two triangles are similar, what is the perimeter of the smaller triangle?
(1) The sum of the perimeters of the triangles is 30.
(2) The ratio of the measures of two corresponding sides is 2 to 3.
While shopping, Steve spent three times as much money as Judy, and Judy spent five times as much as Nancy. How much did Nancy spend?
(1) The average amount of money spent by the three people was $49.
(2) Judy spent $35
A cube has an edge of e units and a rectangular prism has a base area of 25 and a height of h. Is the volume of the cube equal to the volume of the rectangular prism?
(1) The value of h is equal to the value of e.
(2) The sum of the volumes is 250 cubic units.
ANSWERS = 4,5,2,2,1,1,3,4,3